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3nuts ['frE 'n\&ts] is a peer-to-peer network combining the benefits of reliable random graphs and semantic search trees. The goal of 3nuts is to overcome the restricted query languages induced by the use of distributed hash tables. In most of the currently used peer-to-peer networks these distributed hash tables do not support the efficient exploration of the semantic neighborhood of a data entry. In 3nuts, semantic relationships of data are preserved, because peers are assigned to the data and not vice versa.

3nuts allows non-trivial lookups, like prefix search for example. All network operations in 3nuts are local and distributed, i.e. simple handshake operations maintain the network structure. Besides this, 3nuts provides fair load balancing, fast data access and guaranteed robustness, proved by rigorous analysis.




  • DELIS: Dynamically Evolving Large-scale Information Systems. DELIS is an Integrated European Project founded by the "Complex Systems" Proactive Initiative within the Sixth Framework Programm.
    • Sub-project 6: Data Management, Search, and Mining on Internet-scale Dynamically Evolving Peer-to-Peer Networks
    • Work package 6.2, Self-organizing Semantic Overlay Networks


  • Peter Mahlmann, Christian Schindelhauer. Peer-to-Peer Networks based on Random Transformations of Connected Regular Undirected Graphs. SPAA'05: Proceedings of the 17th annual ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, Las Vegas, NV, 2005. (pdf)
  • Gunnar Schomaker, Christian Schindelhauer. Weighted distributed hash tables. SPAA'05: Proceedings of the 17th annual ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, Las Vegas, NV, 2005. (pdf)
  • Peter Mahlmann, Christian Schindelhauer. 3nuts: A Top-Down Peer-to-Peer Network (Poster). European Conference on Complex Systems (ECCS 2005), Paris, France, 2005. (pdf)
  • Peter Mahlmann, Christian Schindelhauer. Distributed Random Digraph Transformations for Peer-to-Peer Networks. In: SPAA '06: Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, S. 308-317 2006. (pdf)
  • Christian Schindelhauer, Gunnar Schomaker. SAN Optimal Multi Parameter Access Scheme. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Networking (ICN'06), Mauritius 2006. (pdf)
  • Peter Mahlmann, Thomas Janson, Christian Schindelhauer: 3nuts: A Locality-Aware Peer-to-Peer Network Combining Random Networks, Search Trees, and DHTs. Technical Report tr-ri-09-309, Dec. 2009 (pdf)


A Java based implementation of 3nuts is available:

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